Editor-in-Chief: Janusz Ostrowski Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Davide Viggiano Editors: Maria Kalientzidou, Guido Gembillo IAHN Bulletin is the official E-Newsletter of the International Association for the History of Nephrology
INTRODUCTION It was in November 2018, one year after the 10th IAHN Congress in Wieniec-Zdrój, when I organised the IAHN Board meeting in Warsaw and Włocławek, Poland. Apart from myself, it was kindly attended by Natale G. De Santo, Katka Derzsiova, Iwannis Stefanidis, Ahmet Aciduman and Bolesław Rutkowski as a special guest supporting the activities of the Association. Not only did we discuss all the issues concerning the IAHN at the time but also, in response to Natale De Santo’s request, I presented the initial version of the IAHN Bulletin. Consequently, I became the Bulletin’s editor-in-chief, and the first official issue of the Newsletter was out in December later that year. Ever since then, the publication has been prepared and published biannually on the official IAHN online service in the form of a link and a pdf file. The Bulletin was also to be found on the ERA-EDTA website, and now, thanks to my efforts, also on the webpage of ERA. With this 10th issue I would like to thank everyone whose effort and engagement have made it possible to continue the publishing of the Bulletin over the last 5 years, not least Natale De Santo, the father and the good spirit of this newsletter which brings information about the IAHN to a wide group of nephrologists around the world and whose impact on the life of the Association seems indisputable. This issue is dedicated to the co-founder of the IAHN, the legend of world nephrology, Professor Shaul Massry, who sadly passed away on 11th April earlier this year. We are glad to present several publications about his life and achievements, presented by people who maintained particularly close contacts with him, by friends from around the world. A great man, a giant in the field of medicine, especially nephrology, our friend has left us. I hope that the readers of our Bulletin, IAHN members and our supporters will find this issue interesting. After 5 years of managing the Bulletin and gaining experience I am fully aware that it may be time to change its form to make its content more attractive and interesting. I wish all of you and all our friends a good holiday time and rest after all year’s hard work. Janusz Ostrowski Editor-in-Chief
No. 10, June 2023
Janusz Ostrowski Professor, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland janusz.ostrowski@cmkp.edu.pl
Board of the International Association for the History of Nephrology Ayse Balat – President Iwannis Stefanidis – Past President Davide Viggiano – President Elect Vincenzo Savica – Treasurer Natale G. De Santo - (ex officio) Councillors:
Murat Aksu  Abdullah Yildiz Mario Lamagna               Maria Kalientzidou                                                                                                    Katarina Derzsiova                                                                                  Vincenzo Savica
In line with his commitment to education, Shaul created several forums to communicate, share, and stimulate medical research worldwide. To this end he organized medical symposia and conferences across the world, especially in developing countries, where local nephrologists were provided with exposure to leading scientists in the field. His attention to the details of assuring the success of those meetings are legend. He devoted as much time to organizing the scientific programs as he did to the festivities surrounding them, be they that of honoring a regional cultural eminence, celebrating the achievements of an up-coming local investigator, or acknowledging the contributions of the hosting institution. No to forget the memorable farewell dinners that he so much delighted in orchestrating. Nobody else could put on an educational program like those Shaul did. In line with his commitment to the biomedical sciences, Shaul created the Meira and Shaul G. Massry Foundation in 1995. Since 1996, the Foundation has granted the Annual Massry Prize which is awarded to investigators who have made fundamental contributions to the biomedical sciences. The prize consists of a Massry gold medal, a gothic-style colorful certificate printed on parchment paper, and a substantial monetary award. The impact of these prizes can be ascertained from the fact that they have come to be recognized and coveted worldwide as a prestigious award of which over half of its past recipients have gone on to become Nobel Laureates in Chemistry or in Physiology and Medicine. Having served as the master of ceremonies at most of those Award sessions for the past 26 years, I can attest to the pride and delight that Shaul derived as he personally awarded the prize to each recipient. The Massry Foundation also sponsors an annual visiting professorship to the two medical schools in Los Angeles (USC, UCLA) and provides research support for medical students at the University of California Keck Medical School. Shaul was a big deal. Not just because of his accomplishments, awards, accolades, and recognitions, but also because of his enormous generosity and immense concern for the well-being of others. Yes, he could be stubborn and opinionated but his affable character, infectious enthusiasm, and devotion to friends were unique. In the course of his life, either directly or indirectly, he touched the lives of an innumerable number of people because of his genuine care and empathy for the welfare of others. Anyone who ever sat across from him walked away feeling like they mattered, had a mission to accomplish, and usually formed a strong and enduring relationship with him. He in turn enjoyed their company and delighted in their accomplishments. One of his sayings was, “Life is good, and friends are its perfume.” He meant it and he lived it every day of his life. Critically, Shaul had an unusual knack for recognizing talent in others and nurturing it something he seems to have acquired from the hardships he had to overcome in his own life of growing up as a Jew in Iraq, of doing research in the isolated and scorching heat of the Negev desert in Israel, and of thriving in the competitive environment of American research. I was a beneficiary of this latter aspect of Shaul. We met in the late 1960s and immediately bonded. Over the years he mentored me, advised me, guided me, comforted me, promoted me, and literally became an integral part of my life. He was the knight in shining armor on a white charger anyone would wish for by his side through the trials and tribulations of life. We used to coordinate our travels to meetings in order to have time to talk, discuss and commensurate together. As we aged and those opportunities diminished we used to have 30 minutes or longer talks on the phone at least once or twice a month. We last talked, albeit briefly, ten days before he passed away. With his passing, I have lost the spiritual older brother that I was so lucky to relish for the past 50 years of my life.
Figure 1b. Shaul Massry's Solemn Pledge on the Symbol of the University
Figure 1a. Shaul Massry delivers the doctoral lecture - Gratitude (Gratiarum Actio), before the ceremonial session of the UPJŠ Academic Board
Figure 1d. Professor Shaul Massry and his wife Meira
Figure 1c. Program of the International Symposium "Metabolic changes in chronic renal failure" on the occasion of the awarding of the honorary degree Dr.h.c. to Professor Shaul Massry
Garabed Eknoyan, Distinguished Emeritus Professor of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
SHAUL G. MASSRY, THE BROTHER I ONCE HAD. Shaul G. Massry (1930-2023) one of the founding fathers of nephrology died on April 11, 2023. He was 92 years old. Shaul achieved prominence in the formative years of nephrology and as a second-generation nephrologist, trained by two of the founders of the discipline (George E. Schreiner, Charles R. Kleeman), he was instrumental in the establishment, development, growth and evolution of nephrology. With Shaul’s passing away the world of nephrology has lost one of its legendary giants, visionary leaders, and creative contributors. ( Fig. 1) For 25 years (1974-1999) Shaul served as Chief of Nephrology at the University of Southern California (USC) Keck School of Medicine. His ground breaking research focused on uremic toxicity and specifically established the detrimental systemic effects of parathyroid hormone changes in the course of progressive kidney disease. During this period the USC division of nephrology became one of the foremost world centers of clinical and scientific excellence in renal studies that attracted and trained some 150 fellows, several of whom now serve as chiefs or members of academic nephrology sections worldwide. As a scientist of limitless energy, immense creativity, and boundless inquisitiveness, over the 60 years of his academic career, Shaul published some 800 scientific papers, and authored or co-edited over 30 symposia and books. In addition, he established two medical journals, one of which the American Journal of Nephrology is now in its 53rd year of publication. He also co-edited the Textbook of Nephrology with Richard J. Glassock in 1983, Therapy of Renal Diseases with Wadi N. Suki in 1984, and Nutritional Management of Renal Disease with Joel D. Kopple in 2003. As a result of his contributions to medical knowledge, Shaul was awarded 14 honorary doctorate degrees from universities across Europe, membership in 11 medical societies across the world, 7 elections to foreign Academies of Science, and innumerable recognitions and prizes by scientific and professional societies. In addition, he served in a leading role and president of a dozen foundations and medical societies, notably that of our own International Association for the History of Nephrology (IAHN) which he helped establish in 1974.
Introduction Shaul Massry, our beloved Friend, has passed. The long stride from the Jewish Community (with no political clout) of Basra to Beverly Hills, has come to an end. In Basra he was recognized as the best student at his high school and at the univerdity. Shaul Massry died a righteous man, who, as a wise physician and professor of medicine, campaigned for palliative care, humane care. In paraphrasing Italo Calvino, “he was a classic, who never stopped to say what had to say” (1). Having achieved all his familial, cultural and scientific goals, he was spiritually ready to go. He engaged till the end with family and remained connected with his most dearest students and friends. He died proud of his more than one hundred and fifty fellowships from all over the world and for many more achievements. The birth of the International Association for the History of Nephrology The International Association for the History of Nephrology (IAHN), as many good things, was created by necessity with the aim “to give voice to the many dormant historians of nephrology awaiting an opportunity to come out of the closet. Natale Gaspare De Santo, Garabed Eknoyan and Shaul G. Massry, while travelling in Poland on a bus from Lublin to Poznan for an international event organized by Professor Kazimierz Bączyk in 1992, gave birth to IAHN. It was then that the goal of the society was identified, a list of dormant historians of nephrology identified, and the structure of the association shaped. It was decided to start with a preparatory conference in Italy which took place on October 28-30, 1993, between Naples and Montecassino (Fig. 1 and 2). The conference was promoted by the Second University of Naples (President Domenico Mancino), the Italian Institute for Philosophical Studies (President, Avvocato Gerardo Marotta), Baylor College of Medicine (President, William T. Butler), and The Benedictine Abbey of Montecassino (Abbot Bernardo D’Onorio)”(2). More than 80 putative historians attended the meeting. The list of speakers included: N. G. De Santo, G. Eknoyan, S. Massry, L. Iorio, S.G. Marketos, C.W. Gottschalk, S. Sabatini, E. Kinne-Saffran, N.A. Kurtzman, A.D ‘Angelo, S. Favaro, G. Aliotta, B. Cavarra, G. Federspill, A. Tizianello, F. Rossi, M. Timio, F.F. Avagliano, M.D.M. Tortora, J.C.M. Chan, R.J. Petrucelli,.R. Palmero, J.S. Cameron;. J.D.Kopple, T. Fogazzi, E. Ritz, M. Cirillo, V. Bonomini, G. Conte, K. Hierholzer, L. Calò, R. A. Bernabeo, R.K.H. Kinne, L. Fine, S. Musitelli, M. Oldoni, M. Pasca, R.L. Chevalier, A. Borsatti, L. Melillo, A. Heidland, B. Cavarra, F.P. Schena, G. Chieffi. M.U. Dianzani, and L. R. Angeletti, G. Capasso and H. Iahn.
Natale Gaspare De Santo, Emeritus Professor University Luigi Vanvitelli Naples
Luigi Iorio, Former Director Division of Medicine and Nephrology, Cassino Hospital, Cassino Italy
The Day in Cassino was organized by Luigi Iorio, Chief of the Division of Nephrology at De Bonis Hospital in Cassino and by Bernardo D’Onorio, the Abbot of the Abbey. For the event the late Father Faustino Avagliano, Director of the Montecassino Archives, organized an exhibit of nine Codices of the Art of Medicine and prepared a catalogue in Latin (Fig. 3). The Institute of Botanics of the University of Naples organized in the Cloister of Abbey an exhibition of Diuretic Plants described by Dioscorides (Fig. 4), and an exhibit of some Antique books on Italian herbals in the hall of the Italian Institute for Philosophical Studies. A detailed account is described in American Journal of Nephrology 1994 as a prologue to the Proceedings of the event. A business meeting was held at the conclusion of the conference, where it was voted to establish the International Association for the History of Nephrology (2). It is appropriate to remember that Shaul Massry was Editor in Chief of the Journal and he had enrolled Garabed Eknoyan to serve as Sectional Editor for the History of Nephrology (the first editor for history of our discipline). In the subsequent 30 years IAHN celebrated 12 congresses and published nearly 450 papers in American Journal of Nephrology, Journal of Nephrology, Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia Hellenic Archives of Medicine , Experimental and Clinical Transplantation , listed on the website. In addition printed books have been published for congresses nos.1-10, as reported in IAHN’s website. Places of the soul visited with Shaul Massry For nearly 40 years we met with Shaul Massry not only in historical congresses, but at more than 50 international events around the world. The group traditionally dined together in the evening and keep late hours chatting about our families and programs. These were occasions to visit museums, cultural landmarks, concerts where we enjoyed each other’s company. A total of 11 places of the soul are listed in Table 1. They come to my mind as the great possibility for scientists to exchange science, but also to share unforgettable cultural events. Such satellite events are very important for scientists since they help to put their work, what belongs to the disciplines they practice, into the appropriate cultural context. In addition, they help to becalm the anxiety of people looking for what comes next. In this context, concerts have a poignant role. In fact, music is full of meaning. As George Steiner wrote: “… it is the most significant human event that can communicate the nearing of the transcendent, a therapy for the wounds of the spirit”. As Nietzsche says it is “mysteriumtremendum” to be necessarily included in a modern “quadrivium” along with mathematics, architecture and biogenetics(3). With Massry, we had special antiquity shops to visit in Naples, Taormina, Kosice, Cassino. Shaul looked for local imitation of Fabergé eggs (1885-1915), XVI-XVII century bibles, and XVII-XVIII century furniture. Luigi Iorio loved the functionality of the desks in style Louis Philippe(1830-1848), De Santo looked for 1st edition postwar Italian literary books (a sustainable hobby), bells and first half 20th century minor painters (to learn), Russian icons. Guido Bellinghieri is an expert of stones and a specialist of Sciacca coral, an a collector of old medical books, whereas Vincenzo Savica loves modern potteries .We had our places. In Kosice it was on Krmanova Street, site of the central Hlavnáulica, near the Cathedral, very specialized in Central Europe painters and sculptors of the 1st half of the 20th century . In Taormina (nearly every time we met in Messina, we went to Taormina) we visited a fine furniture shop near Porta Messina and a shop with ancient books, maps and gouaches near Porta Catania along Corso Umberto. In Naples the Libreria Antiquaria Regina on Costantinopoli Street, was and is the unsurpassed place for ancient bibles and gouches. In Cassino the most learned antique dealer to visit and talk to was Mr. Santulli on Arinni Street. His descriptions of furniture disclosed the talent of the artisan who made them and of their workshops. Visiting such shops was relaxing and edifying, a way to enter the mysteries of how men and women shape the world. Table 1. Places of the soul visited with Shaul Massry I . Axelmunthe Home in Anacapri in 1977. I I . An evening concert of Severino Gazzelloni at Punta Tragara (Capri) in 1980. I I I . An evening private visit of the Cistercian Gothic Duomo of Cosenza (1122), in 1980. I V . Discovering The Lombard Church of Santa Sofia in Benevento and the Museo del Sannio, 1980. V . Verdi’ Machbeth at San Carlo Theatre in Naples, Conductor Riccardo Muti, Opera Director Roiberto De Simone , Scenography-costumes by Giacomo Manzu, Renato Bruson baritone, in 1984. A Macbethh defined by specialists “with the color of the sun”. V I . A whole morning visit to The Seven Works of Mercy of Caravaggio at Pio Monte della Misericordia in Naples. No guide but equipped with expert annotated books in 1984. V I I . Rafting on the waters of the river Dunajec in Tatras Mountains ―Pieniny National Park―, together with Garabed Eknoyan and Joel Kopple hosted by Miro Mydlik, in 1996 (Fig. 5). V I I I . The astonishing one day tour from Montecassino to the Abbey of Casamari (Veroli, Frosinone) and to the Cathedral of Alatri, and the Cathedral of Anagni (the city of Boniface VIII) in 1998. I X . The evening visit to the Anatomy Theatre of Girolamo Fabricid’ Acquapendente and a guided visit to Giotto’s paintings in the Chapel of Scrovegni in Padua, with Augusto Antonello and Lorenzo Calò, in 1998. X . A whole morning at Caffè Greco in Padua 2003. X I . Walking on the banks and waters of the perennial river Alcantara (between Catania and Messina, mouth in the Ionian Sea), in 2004. X I I . Memorial concert for Pope John Paul II in the Oliwa Cathedral of Gdansk, where 1000 artists and the the Baltic Philarmonic Orchestra played (2005). Shaul Massry in Naples Shaul Massry came to Naples innumerable times (Table 2). He was also Visiting Professor of Medicine by invitation of Professor Carmelo Giordano, who also proposed, as President of SIN, Shaul Massry as Honorary Member of the Italian Society of Nephrology. Massry was the first non-Italian honorary member. Massry was a constant presence in the Capri Conference on Uremia (1974, 1977, 1980 an 1984) and later of the Giovanni Alfondo Borelli Conferences on Acid Base Balance (1984, 1987, 1991) organized by Natale G De Santo, Giovambattista Capasso and Massimo Cirillo, 7th European Colloquium on Renal Physiology in Naples,in1992 that included an excursion to Paestum (Figure 6), the 1996 Conference on Human Clinical Research at the Italian Institute for Philosophical Studies (4) and of the Conference on Edema. Pathophysiology and Therapy , the first European Master in Nephrological Sciences (Magister Nephrologiae, Neapoli s, MNN) , the First Conference on Survival is not Enough , on occasion of the 2007 World Kidney Day). His contributions were centered on his favorite topics, namely calcium balance, PTH and uremic toxins. He very much supported the idea behind Survival is not Enough and he invited presentations on this topic at many international events. All events in Naples had the Patronage of Italian Institute for Philosophical Sciences and the enthusiastic support of his visionary President Avvocato Gerardo Marotta (5). The books coproduced with the Institute are part of unique catalogue of books that have been shown in at Warbug Institute, and at the Parliament in London at the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. Table 2. Scientific event s in collaboration with Shaul Massry I . Capri Uremia Conference 1974, 1977, 1980, and 1984 organized by Carmelo Giordano. I I . Visiting Professor Department of Medicine , 1ST Faculty of Medicine, University of Naples, 1985 (Invited by Carmelo Giordano). I I I . Giovanni Alfonso Borelli Conference and Award on Acid Base balance 1991, 1995, 1999 (Massry was Recipient of the Medal), 2004. I V . 7th European Colloquium on Renal Physiology, Naples, 1992. V . An International Conference on the History of Nephrology, Naples-Montecassino , Octobe28-30, 1993. V I . 8th International Congress on Nutrition and Metabolism in Renal Disease, October 9-12, 1996. V I I . An Appeal for Clinical Research, Palazzo Serra di Cassano, September 15-1997 V I I I . 20 Years Nephrology in Cassino, 1998, taking place in the Sala capitularis of the Abbey (Fig. 7-9) I X . Master in Scienze Nefrologiche (Magister Nephologiae, Neapolis) , 2000-2001. X . Survival is not Enough- Quality of Life in CKD, March, March 7-8, 2007 (1st of an annual multisite conference, 2007-2020). X I . IV IAHN Congress in Montecassino, 2007. It is worth mentioning that we had outstanding scientific meetings on uremic toxicity with Massry and particularly enjoyed those in Nagoya, organized by Toshimitsu Niwa in 1999 and in Gdansk in 2005 organized by Boleslaw Rutkowski (Fig. 10, 11).
Ayse Balat, MD, President of IAHN, Gaziantep University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Gaziantep, Turkiye.
PROF SHAUL G. MASSRY; AN INSPIRING SCIENTIST In this Bulletin, you will read much about Prof Massry from his close friends. I am one of the luckiest people who had the opportunity to get to know him closely at the MKS and IAHN congresses which he was one of the founders (Fig.1). Although the words cannot fully express our emotions, I tried to express my feelings below. Imagine a man who chose to be a doctor. He spent part of his medical career in challenging geography under difficult conditions. He never gave up and pursued his ideals and the way he knew right; “he did everything his way”. He always worked, and success followed him. He continued to illuminate his surroundings like an everlasting candle. He encouraged scientists, welcomed students from all over the world, and continued to educate without discrimination. Prof Massry didn't just work; “he inspired”. He had such a tremendous life experience that anyone who could listen to his conversation at his desk felt rewarded. I was one of those who had the chance to listen to him and his speeches at congresses. As both adult and pediatric nephrologists, we learned much from him. His teachings went beyond the scientific; his perspectives on social life were equally enlightening. He was one of the most elegant people I've ever met, thinking "people first". He was the best answer to the question of "how to be on the way of science", especially the ability to solve mutual communication problems. The loss of this remarkable scientist will be deeply felt. He left indelible memories, from his significant contributions to the global kidney community in education, investigation, and leadership to his beautiful messages during congress dinners. His valuable works will continue to guide us, and his memory will live on in our hearts. We will always remember him with love. May he rest in peace.
Figure 1. The 3rd Congress of Mediterranean Kidney Society - Cappadocia, Turkey - June 10-13,2015. From Right to Left; Prof Shaul G Massry, Prof Ayse Balat and Prof Guido Bellinghieri
Professor Shaul G. Massry, a pioneer in renal medicine and Professor Emeritus of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, has passed away at the age of 92 in Beverly Hills. He was one of the most eminent experimental and clinical nephrologists, recognized not just in the U.S. but worldwide. He had an extremely successful career that allowed him to continue his research for over 60 years. He was the laureate of the honorary degree of "Doctor Honoris Causa" (Dr.h.c,) of a number of universities in Europe, including Slovakia. Professor Shaul Massry was the first, out of seven outstanding world nephrologists, to have been awarded the honorary degree of Dr.h.c. by Pavol Jozef Šafárik University (UPJŠ) in Košice in 1993. Until 1993, he visited Košice three times (1984, 1993 - twice). He was an invited lecturer at the International Congress of Nephrology in Košice on the first occasion. He visited the IV Internal Clinic of the UPJŠ Medical Faculty and some other university departments during his stay. He visited Košice once again in March 1993 and lectured at the scientific meeting of the Medical Society in Košice. He was a visiting professor at the UPJŠ Faculty of Medicine from 1 to 7 November 1993 and lectured repeatedly to medical students. Professor Shaul Massry was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor Honoris Causa of UPJŠ in Košice on 4 November 1993. He received the award from the hands of the Rector of the University, Professor RNDr. Lev Bukovský, DrSc (1), (Fig. 1). The ceremony took place in the Historical Hall of the UPJŠ Rectorate. The gala dinner was hosted at the historic Krásna Hôrka Castle. The following day, the International Nephrology Symposium, "Metabolic Changes in Chronic Renal Failure" was held at the East Slovak Gallery, where he presented his lecture "Uremia is a state of Cellular Calcium Toxicity", one of the most significant studies from his abundant lecturing and publishing activities.
Shaul Massry repeatedly visited Košice as the active participant on the occasion of awarding the honorary degree of Dr.h.c. to other distinguished nephrologists, Professors Joel Kopple (USA,1995), Horst Klinkmann (Germany,1997), Franciszek Kokot (Poland,1997), Natale De Santo (Italy,1999), and Guido Bellinghieri (Italy,2000). He did not attend the last conferral of the honorary degree of Dr.h.c. on Professor Vittorio Bonomini (Italy) in 2006, for family reasons. Professor Miroslav Mydlík, M.D., DrSc., proposed the awarding of the degree of Dr.h.c. to all seven excellent nephrologists. His subsequent visits to Košice were associated with his active participation in the 8th International Nephrology Symposium held on the occasion of the life and professional jubilee of Professor Mydlik, where he presented his lecture “Abnormality of B-cell function“ (2007), (Fig. 2). He also participated in the 9th International Nephrology Symposium organized in memory of Professor Albert Válek, DrSc., (2009, Tatranská Lomnica, the High Tatras), where he presented his lecture “Vascular calcification in CKD patients“ (2), (Fig. 3). Albert Válek was one of the founders of the Czechoslovak Nephrological Society. He was a long-time President of the aforementioned Society. Professor Albert Válek was an outstanding nephrologist of European renown, recognized both in Europe and in the USA. During his stay in the High Tatras, Shaul Massry visited the Hrebienok Tourist Centre and the Franz Kafka Memorial in Tatranské Matliare, which was designed and unveiled by Professor Mydlík (2001). He also visited the city of Kežmarok. All international participants, together with the organizers of the symposium, were hosted by the Mayor of Kežmarok, Ing. Igor Šajtlava. Professor Massry took an interest in the history of Kežmarok, which was described to him by the Mayor during a lively conversation. In addition, he also visited the Dialysis Centre in Kežmarok, Dialcorp Ltd., where Miroslav Mydlík had been a consultant for many years. Shaul Massry and Guido Bellinghieri spent the next day in Košice. The last evening was a farewell dinner in an excellent restaurant. This was Professor Massry's last visit to Košice, but not our last meeting. Shaul Massry had established the so-called "Massry Group", to which we (Miro Mydlik and Katka) belonged, which used to gather in various cities in Europe, the USA, and Asia for various international congresses, most often in Sicily, organized by Professors Guido Bellinghieri and Vincenzo Savica. Professor Shaul Massry proposed the "International Distinguished Medal of the National Kidney Foundation" award to Professor Mydlík, which was presented to him in 1994 in Orlando, the USA. Shaul loved life, his motto was "Life is Good". The memory of Professor Shaul Massry as a true friend who loved Slovakia, the High Tatras, and Košice, will forever remain in my memory and in my heart. Fig. 1: Professor Shaul G. Massry, "Doctor Honoris Causa" of Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice
Dipl. Ing. Katarina Derzsiova Former Head of the Nephrological Laboratory IVth Internal Clinic University Hospital of L. Pasteur Košice, Slovak Republic
Figure 1e. Krásna Hôrka Castle
Fig. 2: The 8th International Nephrology Symposium on the occasion of the  life and professional jubilee Prof. MUDr. Miroslav Mydlík, DrSc. , 2007
Figure 2b. A photograph of international participants in the Symposium with Miro Mydlik
Figure 2a. Professor Shaul Massry and Professor Natale De Santo congratulate Professor Miroslav Mydlík
Figure 2c. Shaul Massry giving a lecture at the Symposium at the East Slovak Gallery in Košice.
Fig. 3: 9th International Nephrology Symposium in honour and  memory of Professor Albert   Válek, MD, DSc., 2009
Figure 3b. Friendly discussion with the Mayor of Kežmarok, Ing. I. Šajtlava
Figure 3a.Visit to the Franz Kafka Memorial during the Symposium in Tatranské Matliare, in the High Tatras
Figure 3d. Prof. Shaul Massry's last visit to Košice, on his way back from the High Tatras in 2009, during a farewell dinner in a restaurant
Figure 3c. Professor Shaul Massry visiting the Dialysis Centre of Dialcorp s.r.o., in Kežmarok
References: 	1.	Mydlík M, Derzsiová K, Vajó J.  Nephrology and Doctors Honoris Causa at P. J. Šafárik University in Košice in the years 1993-2006 (the Slovak Republic). J Nephrol  2009; 22 (S14): S143-S148. 	2.	Mydlík M, Derzsiová K. Abstracts of the 9th International Nephrological Symposium “Metabolic Changes in Chronic Renal Failure“. October 21, 2009, Tatranská Lomnica, the High Tatras, the Slovak Republic. Akt Nephrol 2010; 16(1):  9-18.
Alessandra F. Perna Professor of Nephrology, Chief Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
SHAUL MASSRY, A CHARISMATIC SCIENTIST AND A WISE MAN. I have known Shaul Massry since 1986, when he came as a visiting scientist at the Nephrology Unit of the Policlinic in Naples, Italy, at the invitation of Carmelo Giordano, who was then Chief of the Unit at the University. At the time I was 26 years old, and striving to find my place in the world. As the daughter of a well-educated American woman from New York, and of an ambitious University cardiologist and nephrologist from Naples, it was obvious to me that I could pursue a carrier in the Accademia, because this was within my means, however difficult, and the right place for me. But it was understood, and also prof Natale De Santo to whom I looked to for advice suggested this, that a period of training outside Italy would have been auspicious and advisable, and even necessary. At that time, Italy was still very much under the cultural influence of the United States, especially regarding science. At this point prof Shaul Massry came into my life. He was vibrant and charismatic, and definitively this encounter made a difference for me. I asked him if I could join his unit in Los Angeles, and he immediately said yes, provided that I could join his unit in a short time. So, in August 1987 I started working with him at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and remained there for three years. He was very enthusiastic and passionate about his work as a scientist, devoted to the study of uremic toxins, and especially parathyroid hormone. In his laboratory, parathyroid hormone was studied in humans and in a rat model of chronic kidney disease under various respects, for example anemia, bone disease, red cell function, etc were examined. At some point, during the years, I perceived he was even mocked by some unkind fellow colleagues because what was thought as a “fixation” on parathyroid hormone studies; but we know today that this is the only way that a field can be pushed forward. In other words, only relentlessly pursuing an idea can put studies on a given topic into fast forward and into fruition. He was so energetic and animated about PTH that even his car had a PTH plate ! Of course, in California custom plates are common. Indeed, the field of uremic toxicity was slowly expanding, and many original aspects regarding toxins and new toxins were discovered since then. I myself continued into the field, and I later on in life studied other uremic toxins, such as homocysteine, and uncovered the role of a new uremic toxin, lanthionine, in a life long collaboration with my husband, Diego Ingrosso, a clinical biochemist. I was fortunate enough to be able to contribute with a chapter on homocysteine to the Massry Glassock’s Textbook of Nephrology, a wonderful and informative book (Figure 1), very much utilized, along with the Nutritional Management of renal disease text. I still cherish his dedication on the front page of my personal copy (Fig. 2).
Shaul Massry was very hard working, as I mentioned, and, in this respect, I must point out that the strong support that his family and his wife, Meira, an intelligent and caring woman, were giving to him, was enabling his devotion to work.  His was a Jewish family with strong bonds in Israel and in the Jewish community. I will always remember fondly when we were guests at his home, and my husband was allowed to wear the kippah, and we could exchange opinions with his family and with his talkative pet parrot. Also, I should add that he was a magnificent story teller, and his tales about his youth in fabulous and ancient Bassora, Iraq, where people used to sleep on the roof during the summer heat, his experiments in the Israel desert, where he measured on himself the effects of dehydration, and the many stories about meeting the most diverse and interesting people encountered in his travels, are to this day vivid and alive in my mind.  No doubt that such exposure to different cultures and habits was quite beneficial for me and my husband.   I should also indicate that in his mind people working with him were expected to give their unwavering and utmost devotion and allegiance, but on the other hand he himself was extremely loyal and willing to go to great lengths in order to help. His close clinical and research collaborators, dr Akmal, dr Smogorzewski, were stalwart in their commitment to the best clinical care and research excellence. He was also very supportive of the many students who trained with him, who came from all over the world. As for myself, once I had proven to be trustworthy and reliable, in every way showed that he believed in me and my capabilities, thus boosting my career. Anyway, aside from work, he had really many good friends around the world and he believed in friendship very much (Fig. 3).   Most of all, Shaul Massry taught me that hard work and commitment, accompanied by knowledge, exchange of viewpoints between peers, as well as creative thinking, are the foundations on which a good scientist can grow and thrive. This is the solid ground into which ideas can be brought to see the light, with in the end to have in mind the common good. Thank you, Shaul ! Your heritage of wisdom will endure.
Figure 2. Dedication.
Figure 1. The Massry Glassock’s Textbook of Nephrology.
Figure 3. Prof Massry, to his left prof Guido Bellinghieri, to his right prof Toshimizu Niwa and his wife.
Guido Bellinghieri Accademia Peloritana Pericolanti Vincenzo Savica Accademia Peloritana Pericolanti
SHAUL MASSRY IN SICILY I can't find the words to express the great pain I feel in my heart at this moment for the passing of dear Shaul, whom I considered as my second father (fig.1). He was a generous man, a life lover, a great optimist. In the long telephone conversations we often had, I always expressed my gratitude to him for everything he had done for me, having radically changed the course of my life. A man of science, endowed with great humanity and charisma, he dedicated his entire life to suffering humanity and his family. Thanks to his great communication skills he transmitted the fruits of his research to hundreds of nephrologists from every corner of the earth, who had the good fortune to drink from the source of his knowledge. Anyone who was lucky enough to know him and be close to him today mourns his passing, which leaves a void that cannot be filled. With sincere affection we express our deepest condolences to all the family members. That is the message that my wife Lilla, my son Pietro and I sent to Meira and Joel Kopple when we learned of the death of our dear friend Shaul. Vincenzo Savica and I were lucky enough to meet Shaul Massry personally during a scientific congress held in Bari in the distant 1980s, during which we presented the results of a research on the carnitine metabolism in uremic patients. At the end of my presentation during the discussion he intervened expressing his appreciation for the results achieved and he wanted to meet us through our common friend Natale De Santo (fig.2). During the conversation he expressed his great interest for Sicily and invited us to start a collaboration, which lasted over thirty years in the scientific- organizational field with the aim of promoting every initiative aimed at the development of Sicilian nephrology. A sincere and affectionate friendship was born from that moment, as evidenced by a dedication made to me on the occasion of my 70th birthday, which I quote verbatim: “cast thy bread upon the waters for thou shalt find it after many days, Ecclesiates chapter XI, verse I,” and he continues “on the occasion of your seventieth birthday, all the bread that you have been casting upon the waters all your life, is coming back to you in the form of the letters from your friends and collegues expressing their admiration of your character and humanity, their appreciation of your scientific achievement and contribution and their recognition of you frienship and support. God bless you and yours for now and forever and may he grant you wealth and prosperity for many years to come” . Meira and Shaul Massry .
From 1989 on, numerous scientific initiatives followed under his guidance through the Taormina Course on Nephrology, which, during the first edition held from 29 August to 1 September 1990 (fig.3,4) saw the most prestigious protagonists of international nephrology on the podium such as R.L.Tannen, D.G. Warnock, R.L. W.D. Boswell Jr., S.Klahr, G.Eknoyan, W.E.Mitch, R.M.Schaefer, M.Mydlik (fig.5,6), A.Heidland; national nephrology such as N. De Santo, G.Piccoli, V.Cambi, N.Di Paolo, F.P.Schena, G.Camussi, A.Sessa, G.Bazzato, A.Borsatti, F.Linari, M.Timio, G.A.Cinotti, P.Coratelli, G.Barsotti, V.Bonomini, A.Vercellone, and many other important Sicilian nephrologists such as: C.Fede, S.Baldari, M.Li Vecchi, G.Daidone, S.Gianni, C.Todaro,C.Spata, A. Marrocco,D.Santoro, A.Liardo, V.Savica. Another nine editions of the Taormina Course of Nephrology were subsequently held at the Grand Hotel S.Domenico in Taormina every two years involving the main nephrological scientific fields with the participation of the major representatives of nephrology from all over the world from Australia to Japan, from the numerous countries of Eastern Europe (Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary) and the Middle East (Turkey, Israel) and North Africa (Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Libya). He was also responsible for the introduction of the Malpighi Gold Medal(fig.7,8) and he recorded the most prestigious representatives of the nephrological scientific world as winners. Just to name a few: Shaul Massry, A.Vercellone, G.E. Striker, V.Bonomini, R.Mendez, V.Andreucci, K.Kurokawa, N.G. De Santo, J.D.Kopple, W.F.Keane, W.E.Mitch, H.Morii, A.Dal Canton, G.Eknoyan, G.Piccoli. His contribution was also invaluable during other important scientific conferences, organized with dear colleague Natale De Santo, such as the 3rd congress of the International Association for the History of Nephrology (IAHN) in 2001 and the 6th congress held in 2008(fig.9,10,11) and the 1st congress of the Mediterranean Kidney Society. Together with Joel Kopple, he contributed to the success of the 7th Annual Conference of the International Federation of the Kidney Foundation held in Taormina in 2006. For his merits acquired in the scientific field and for his contributions given to the development of Sicilian Nephrology, in October 2000 Shaul Massry as awarded an honorary degree the “Laurea Honoris Causa in Medicine” from the Rector of the University of Messina Prof. Gaetano Silvestri, who was subsequently elected President of the Italian Constitutional Court. For his constant and passionate interest in Sicilian nephrological problems he earned the esteem of all Sicilian nephrologists, who saw him as the noble father of Sicilian scientific development with his positive effects on the health of tens of thousands of Sicilian patients, affected by kidney disease, undergoing dialysis and transplants, who today saddened thank the man of science, who came from afar, to alleviate their indescribable suffering. There is no doubt all that is the result of his innate generosity of soul, his strong scientific personality and his fervent intellectual activity. Above all he had a formidable fiber, he was a true gentleman, whose contact instantly developed human warmth and a sincere friendship worth gold. In addition to being a great nephrologist, Massry was also a great professor of medicine, endowed not only with gigantic generosity, but also with enormous humanity and a lover of the precious value of life. His motto was "Guido smile at life and life will smile at you", and he always used to say at the end of problematic speeches that, whatever happens, “Life is Beautiful". In memory of a great, affectionate, paternal friendship which binds me to the Man Shaul Massry, I say that his figure will remain everlasting in the hearts and minds of those who, like Vincenzo, Natale and I, had the great fortune to meet him in this short earthly life and to enjoy the fruits of his prolific intellect. In conclusion I must confess that a sincere, warm and spontaneous tear is running down my face.
Davide Viggiano Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Univ. of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy
ON THE SCIENTIFIC NETWORK OF PROF SHAUL MASSRY Prof Shaul Massry, Emeritus of Medicine, Physiology, and Biophysics at the University of Southern California was undoubtedly what is called, in Network theory, a "hub". Let me explain why this is so important. The network theory describes any system composed of discrete objects (or “nodes”) which interact through connections (denoted as “edges”). Among the various applications, the one concerning the scientific society is of interest here, where nodes are scientists, and edges are the connections among them, usually in the form of a co- authorship in a paper. People with a large number of connections are called a "hub". Shaul Massry, with his 466 publications on Pubmed and the large number of students formed under his direction, was undoubtedly a "hub". I have reported in Figure 1 the network around prof Massry, as can be derived from the publications in Pubmed. The network has been obtained with the software VOSviewer. This software shows larger circles when more than one publication links Massry and another author. For graphic limitations not all Massry’s coauthors are readable.
Figure 1. The network of authorships of prof Massry, as generated by the software VOSviewer
Now, in network theory, we speak of the “small world phenomenon” when two any nodes of a network are connected by a minimal number of edges. This phenomenon was described in a famous experiment by psychologist Stanley Milgram in 1967. The "small world" phenomenon is due to the presence of hubs in the network, that is, of people with a great number of connections. The hubs allow two people in the network to stay connected through a small number of nodes, even though they do not know each other. This happens, for example, in the scientific network of mathematicians, where it has been introduced the “Erdős number”, that is the distance (in terms of co-autorship) of any mathematician from the prolific mathematician Paul Erdős, who was a “hub” in the network of mathematicians. Scientists like Massry, with a large number of links, have made our Association far more connected than otherwise. Following the example of the mathematicians, I have a "distance" of 2 from prof Massry (I have co-authored a paper with prof De Santo, who has co-authored a paper with prof Massry), and thank to prof Massry I have a distance of 4 from Donald Seldin. Prof Massry has been important for our International Association of History of Nephrology: his presence in the association contributed to make the meetings so successful, together with several giants in Nephrology such as (the list is not meant to represent all great nephrologists in our society) Steve Peitzman, Carl Gottschalk, Gerhardt Giebisch, Donald Seldin, Marc DeBroe, Stewart Cameron, George Schreiner, Garabed Ecknoyan, Spyros Marketos, Natale De Santo, just to name a few. The entire publication network of all IAHN members (past and present) is extremely large: more than 10000 publications on Pubmed. This network is too big to be represented with all names and connections. However, I have tried to represent (Fig. 2) a smaller network connecting prof Massry with some of the nephrologists in our society; the software, in some cases, automatically clustered IAHN members from the same nationality authors.
Figure 2. Some of the network relationships between Shaul Massry and members of the IAHN in terms of publication co-authorships. The network is incomplete, and only a few nations are represented here due to graphical limitations.
Professor Massry has had a pivotal role in our Association. His role as a Hub has made our Association more compact and connected. His work as a scientist and master will always remain in our memory.  References (some of the publications linking prof Massry and members of IAHN) 	1.	Eknoyan G, Rutkowski B, Bellinghieri G, Massry S, Muszytowski M, De Santo NG. On the usefulness of the history of nephrology. J Nephrol. 2011 May-Jun;24 Suppl 17:S1-3 	2.	De Santo NG, Rutkowski B, George CR, Zdrojewski Z, Massry SG, Eknoyan G. History of nephrology, a prophecy in the past. J Nephrol. 2006 May-Jun;19 Suppl 10:S1-3. PMID: 16874706. 	3.	De Santo NG, Bellinghieri G, Touwaide A, Massry SG, Savica V, Eknoyan G. History of Nephrology: a process confronted with changing times and of those who practiced it. J Nephrol. 2009 Nov-Dec;22 Suppl 14:1-2. PMID: 20013724.
Joel D. Kopple, MD Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Public Health, UCLA, The Division of Nephrology and Hypertension and The Lundquist Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles and Torrance, California
SHAUL MASSRY AND THE NATIONAL KIDNEY FOUNDATION, USA Shaul Massry, MD exerted a valuable and lasting influence on the National Kidney Foundation, USA (NKF). Initially, he was heavily involved with the local Affiliate of the NKF, the National Kidney Foundation of Southern California (NKFSC). In addition to chairing one of its annual symposia and chairing its research committee, Dr. Massry headed its Scientific Advisory Council (i.e., Medical Advisory Board) from 1974 to 1976. Both before and during the time that he was chair of the Division of Nephrology at the University of Southern California (USC) School of Medicine and the Los Angeles County USC Medical Center, Dr. Massry and many of his fellows and assistants competed for and were awarded many competitive research grants from the NKFSC. These research grants contributed to the enormously creative and productive research output that Dr. Massry displayed over so many years (1). As Dr. Massry’s national and international stature as a physician, scientist and academician grew, he became very involved in the NKF at the national level. Among his official positions in the NKF, Dr. Massry served on the Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) from 1974 to 1979, was a member of the Executive Committee of the SAB of the NKF from 1977 to 1980, was co-chair of the NKF Scientific Program Committee in 1985-1986, was chair of this same committee in 1987 and 1988, was Region V President of the NKF in 1988, was chair of the National Medical Advisory Board (formerly called the Scientific Advisory Board) of the NKF in 1989-1990, and served as Vice-President of the NKF in 1989-1990 and President of the NKF in 1990-1992. Dr. Massry’s contributions to the NKFSC and NKF were characterized by his typical affability, strong leadership qualities and vision. As Vice-President and President of the NKF, Dr. Massry took it upon himself to raise money for the recently established NKF research endowment fund. Dr. Massry personally raised more money for the NKF research endowment fund than any other individual. As NKF President, Dr. Massry established the NKF International Prize. This highly coveted prize is given to distinguished professionals from outside the United States who have made meritorious contributions to the science of nephrology or the treatment of kidney disease. The recipients of the NKF International Prize are commonly distinguished professors of nephrology in other countries. Establishing this prize was consistent with Dr. Massry’s vision that advances in the broad fields of the science and treatment of nephrological problems are and should be an international effort (1).
Guido Gembillo 1,2 ; Guido Bellinghieri 1 ; Salvatore Silipigni 2 ; Luigi Peritore 1 ; Vincenzo Savica 2 and Domenico Santoro 1 1 University of Messina, Unit of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Messina, Italy. 2 University of Messina, Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, Messina, Italy. 3 A. Monroy Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, National Research Council, Palermo, Italy.
100 YEARS OF UROGRAPHY - FROM THE BEGINNINGS TO MRI Radiological imaging of the urinary tract has made advances in the 21st century that no one would have thought of at the time of its first presentation. The first urograms were performed in the early years of the 20th century by retrograde catheterisation of the ureters. But a major acceleration of the technique came with the invention of excretory urography (i.e. the intravenous urogram). The invention of this technique has spurred the development of contrast agents that utilise the excretion of organic iodine molecules in the urine. It is important to underline the evolution that urinary tract imaging has undergone over the last century and celebrate the first century since the invention of intravenous urography. The first radiological techniques to study the urinary tract involved invasive catheterisation of the ureters and did not provide a complete view of the urinary tract as there was no means of assessing the function of the renal parenchyma. The invention of intravenous urography represented a revolution that made it possible not only to visualise the urinary system with great anatomical precision, but also to assess conditions affecting the renal parenchyma. Using the same technique, the use of iodine radioisotopes opened the way to modern renal scintigraphy, which has since been a powerful tool for assessing renal function. With the advent of computed tomography (CT) in diagnostic imaging, the diagnostic challenges with the advantage of determining the density of urinary stones in the urinary tract became more advanced. With the advent of modern multidetector devices ( CT ), which allow rapid multiphase volumetric assessment of the urinary tract with the possibility of multiplanar reformatting of images, all the advantages of CT have been progressively perfected and many pitfalls overcome. The severe limitation of CT imaging is outweighed by the considerable radiation dose and renal toxicity from the contrast agent. In addition, relative and absolute contraindications limit the use of CT urography in younger patients and pregnant women. In recent decades, the radiation dose and contrast agent volume have been reduced by the introduction of dual energy CT (DECT) scanners, which are also used for spectral assessment of the atomic number of kidney stones and characterise the mineral composition of the stones. The final step in urological imaging has been achieved with the development of modern MRI scanners that allow radiation-free urography with intravenous gadolinium contrast agent (MR urography) and can also image a stationary fluid in the excretory organs without injection of contrast agent (MR pyelography). Imaging of the urinary tract has made remarkable progress in the last century thanks to advances in technology. The progress made since the first attempts with exponential growth and the continuous tendency to improve suggest that the end point of this process is still far away.
Figure 2. V.Savica, S.G.Massry, N.G.De Santo, F.Consolo, G.Bellinghieri
Figure 1. Shaul Massry and Guido Bellinghieri
Figure 4. 1st Taormina Course S.Domenico Hotel: Open ceremony(1990)
Figure 3. Taormina Course on Nephrology and Malpighi Gold Medal
Figure 6. M.Mydlik and K.Derzsiovà
Figure 5. First edition of Taormina Course: international speakers
Figure 8. H. Morii, Winner of Malpighi Gold Medal, and his Wife
Figure 7. Shaul Massry receives the First Malpighi Gold Medal
Figure 9. Rutkowski,Bellinghieri,Massry and Kurtzman: Meeting on Uremia Research
Figure 11. Taormina: the Council of IAHN 2008 (Smogorzweski, Eknoyan, Calò, De Santo, Bellinghieri,Massry, Opatrna, Touwaide,Diamandopoulos
Figure 10. Messina University : first line from left: G.Bellinghieri, J. Kopple, Shaul andMeira Massry, Rector Tomasello, dean of Internal Medicine F.Consolo
Figure 1. Professor Shaul Massry.
Shaul Massry a man of giving Shaul Massry was generous. This is attested by the huge number of fellows. However, one could best appreciate this attitude during the morning rounds, and by the “intensity” of his participation during the hours spent in rewriting the papers of the colleagues before publication. He had spent his first years as a young doctor in the communities living around the dead sea, an unappealing place. He went and did even seminal investigation. He was very delighted and thankful to De Santo when he first showed him the book of Goubout and Caille on the meaning of the gift (6). In that book one learns that the Lake of Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is the lake of generosity, of the great exchanges, rich in tributaries and emissaries that make its shores green (6). It is a lake that takes and gives, a lake generating the exchange, there is life on its shores and in its waters that quench the thirst of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. In its water lived fishes that were multiplied by Jesus. It is unlike the Dead Sea that is the egoistic sea that takes all the waters left from Jordan and on its shores there is no life (7). “There is a kind of social law that causes death of what does not circulate”. Although originating from the same river the Jordan the lake of Tiberias is a lake of life, the other is the sea of death. The first gives water to other rivers, exchanges its water with them, the second takes the remaining waters of the Jordan (6). Shaul, who worked for the communities on the Dead Sea, was a benevolent man, he can be associated with the Lake of Tiberias. Conclusion Our friend has gone. As Garabed Eknoyan stresses in this issue the Bulletin, we had a motto together: “Life is beautiful and friends are it perfume’s. Friendship among scientists the most competitive persons of our world― is a divine grace but also a personal achievement made of respect, reason and goodwill. Massry, our friend, as university professor affected the lives of his fellows. In this as Carlo Rovelli, a quantum physicist, says in a recent book―he was “a cause, and his intervention left a trace. A memory: its effect” (8). References 1. Calvino I. Perché leggere i classici. Milan, Oscar Mondadori 1991. 2. Eknoyan G, De Santo NG, Massry S.G. On the future of the History of Nephrology. Am J Nephrol 1994; 14: 355-6. 3. Steiner G. My unwritten books. New York, New Directions. 2007. 4. De Santo NG, Eknoyan G (Eds), Capasso Gm Marotta P (Co-eds). Human Clinical Reserch. Ethics and Economics. Naples, Istituto Italianao per gli Studi Filosofiic, 19971, 19982. 5. De Santo NG. De santo RM. Avvocato Gerardo Marotta (Naples April 26,1927 January 25, 2017): in memoriam.G ItalNefrol 2018; 35 (Supplement 70, Proceedings10th IAHN Congress) – ISSN 1724-5990 – © 2018 Società Italiana di Nefrologia 6. Godbout JT, Caille A. L’esprit du don. La Découverte, Paris,1996. 7. De Rosa G. La donazione degli organi, un percorso significativo di formazione alla solidarietà ed alla responsabilità nella scuola del primo ciclo.Un’esperienzapersonale. Thesis at the Pegaso University, Naples, Academical year 2015-2016, p. 72. 8. Rovelli C. I Buchi bianchi. Dentro l’orizzonte. Milano: Adelphi, 2023, pp. 119-120.
Figure 2. International Conference on History of Nephrology in Naples-Montecassino, Italy.
Figure 1. International Conference on History of Nephrology in Naples-Montecassino, Italy.
Figure 4. International Conference on the History of Nephrology: Exibition of diuretic plants described by Dioscorides in the Abbey of Montecassino, Italy.
Figure 3. International Conference on the History of Nephreology. Latin Catologue of Codices in the Montecassino Archives, Italy.
Figure 6. 7th European Colloquium on Renal Physiology in 1997 in Naples. Excursion to the Temples of Paestum, Italy.
Figure 5. Rafting on the waters of the River Dunajec in Tatras Mountains in 1996, Slovakia
Figure 8. 20 Years of Nephrology in Cassino. Scientific events in the Sala Capitularis of the Abbey of Montecassino, Italy.
Figure 7. 20 Years of Nephrology in Cassino. Scientific events in the Sala Capitularis of the Abbey of Montecassino, Italy.
Figure 10. Meeting on Uremic Toxins: Nagoya, 1999, Japan
Figure 9. 20 Years of Nephrology in Cassino. Scientific events in the Sala Capitularis of the Abbey of Montecassino, Italy.
Figure 11. Meeting on Uremic Toxins:Gdansk 2005, Poland.
Another of Dr. Massry’s seminal contributions to the NKF and, by extension, to American and international nephrology was initiating the change in the dates of the annual NKF clinical nephrology meetings. At the time that Dr. Massry assumed the presidency of the NKF, the NKF annual clinical meetings had been held for many years in the autumn, immediately adjacent to the annual nephrology meeting of the American Society of Nephrology (ASN). During this time, the ASN had grown into a highly prominent and influential scientific and professional society. The ASN leadership wanted to expand its annual nephrology meeting from a 2-3 day event to a longer and more extensive activity. Among other goals, the ASN wanted to greatly expand the clinical component of its annual meeting. The fact that the NKF clinical meeting occurred next to the ASN meeting provided a major impediment to these plans. This led to some conflict of opinion between the leaderships of the ASN and the NKF. Dr. Massry was among the first to perceive that this matter could only be resolved if the NKF chronologically disassociated its annual clinical meeting from the annual meeting of the ASN. Dr. Massry therefore proposed to move the annual NKF clinical meeting to the spring. This proposal initially met with some stiff opposition within the NKF leadership which Dr. Massry overcame. This new annual meeting came to be called the National Kidney Foundation Spring Clinical Meetings, and these meetings have evolved into the major scientific and professional events that they are today. The NKF Spring Clinical Meetings are not only a major scientific, professional and educational activity in nephrology for physicians, but also for nurses, social workers and dietitians. These meetings have also become the venue for a major annual NKF business meeting, for the annual issuing of awards by the NKF, and for general fund raising and business activities of the NKF. Credit must be given to Dr. Massry because it was his vision, insight and leadership abilities that set the groundwork for all of this to happen. The ASN, in turn, turned their annual meeting into the well-known annual ASN Kidney Week. The foregoing contributions by Dr. Massry to the NKFSC and the NKF exemplify the extraordinary grasp of basic and clinical science in nephrology, the national and international vision, and the highly effective leadership of Dr. Massry (1). Dr. Massry’s ability to successfully lead the NKF was due in no small part to his ability to connect deeply with people from all walks of life, to communicate to them his vision as to how to improve the world, and to bond with and inspire strong loyalties among his colleagues and coworkers. Citations 1. Joel D. Kopple, MD, Mirek Smogorzewski, MD and Garabed Eknoyan In Memoriam: Shaul G. Massry, MD (1930 – 2023) Kidney International 2023, In Press
INFO FROM POLAND Professor Shaul Massry’s death caused bitter grief among Polish nephrologists, many of whom were close friends with the great colleague. S. Massry visited Poland on numerous occasions and many Polish doctors trained at his centre in the USA. I will be privileged to give a lecture titled “Shaul Massry and his Input in the Development of Nephrology in Central-Eastern Europe” during the 23rd Katowice Seminar “Progress in Nephrology and Hypertension” in November this year. The December issue of the IAHN Bulletin will contain an account of this crucial scientific event along with more information concerning Shaul Massry’s connections with Poland. One should not forget that he was an honorary member of the Polish Society of Nephrology. Over the first six months of this year Polish members of the IAHN attended the following scientific conferences. In January this year, the 19th Gdańsk Nephrology Recapitulatory Meeting - Post ASN Meeting took place. This annual event, organised by prof. Bolesław Rutkowski, aims to provide new information after the Congress of the American Society of Nephrology (Fig. 1). During the two-day seminar, the long list of speakers included: prof. Andrzej Więcek, an honorary member of the IAHN ("Hypertension as an Immune-Mediated Disease"), prof. Przemysław Rutkowski ("Artificial Intelligence in the Assessment of Kidney Biopsies") and Janusz Ostrowski ("Women in nephrology") (Fig. 2).
Figure 2. Professor Janusz Ostrowski (Photo: Maria Ostrowska)
Figure 1. Professor Boleslaw Rutkowski, the main organiser. (Photo: Janusz Ostrowski)
The World Kidney Day has been organised by the country consultant in nephrology, Professor Ryszard Gellert, for the last 20 years. This year, the event happened on 10th January in Warsaw with Prof. Janusz Ostrowski as the chair of the first inaugural scientific session and profs. Bolesław Rutkowski and Przymysław Rutkowski doing the same for some of the others (Fig. 1). Traditionally, the conference was well-attended by Polish nephrologists.
Figure 1. Prof. Janusz Ostrowski, first right (Photo: Maria Ostrowska)
On April 21-22, a cyclical meeting of nephrologists called the Nephrocardiology Conference was held in Białystok. The conference, inaugurated years ago by Professor Michał Myśliwiec, is currently organised by the leader of Białystok nephrology, Prof. Beata Naumnik. IAHN members also actively participated in this event. They included: Prof. Andrzej Więcek giving a lecture entitled "Non-Renal Aspects of the Action of SGLT2 Inhibitors" and Prof. Przemysław Rutkowski (lecture "Hidden Costs of Dialysis - is there a Role for Cardiologists?" Professors Bolesław Rutkowski and Janusz Ostrowski also chaired some of the scientific sessions (Fig. 1, 2, 3).
Figure 2. Professor Bolesław Rutkowski (Photo: Janusz Ostrowski)
Figure 1. Professor Andrzej Więcek (Photo: Janusz Ostrowski)
Figure 3. Professor Janusz Ostrowski, first left, and Professor Ryszard Gellert (photo: Maria Ostrowska)
The 27th Scientific and Training Conference of the Polish Society of Nephrology is the most important nephrology event in Poland so far this year. It was held in Szczecin on 17th -20th May with active participation of IAHN members. Prof. Janusz Ostrowski appeared in the session "Nephrology from the Past to the Present" on the occasion of 50 years of nephrology in Western Pomerania in Poland and in the discussion panel "Milestones in Nephrology" (Fig. 1). In this session, Professor Andrzej Więcek gave a lecture "Nephroprotection: from RAS Blockade to Flozins", and Professor Bolesław Rutkowski "Increasing of the Availability of Renal Replacement Therapy: from Treatment of the ‘Selected’, through the Treatment of ‘All’, to Personalised Treatment" (Fig. 2). In another session, Professor Przemysław Rutkowski spoke about contrast nephropathy as a cardiological, nephrological and radiological problem.  In the second half of the year, further conferences will be held in Katowice and in Poznań.
Figure 2. From right: Prof. Janusz Ostrowski, Prof. Bolesław Rutkowski
Figure 1. Professor Janusz Ostrowski (photo Maria Ostrowska)
Janusz Ostrowski Professor, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland